Principal steps for web application security testing

Each security analysis of a web application must include the steps recommended by computer security experts. The vulnerability analysis tools developed by the International Institute of Cyber Security follow the following phases.

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For information gathering information security experts recommend.

  • Manually browse the site
  • Spider / crawl for lost or hidden content
  • Look for files that expose content
  • Check the caches of the main search engines for public access sites
  • Check the differences in content according to the user agent (eg, Mobile sites, access as a search engine crawler)
  • Make a web application fingerprint
  • Identify the technologies used
  • Identify user roles
  • Identify the entry points of the application
  • Identify the client-side code
  • Identify multiple versions / channels (for example, web, mobile web, mobile application, web services)
  • Identify co-hosted and related applications
  • Identify all host names and ports
  • Identify content hosted by third parties

In terms of configuration management

  • Verify commonly used administrative and application URLs
  • Verify old, backup and non-referenced files
  • Check compatible HTTP methods and Cross Site Tracing (XST)
  • Test test file extensions
  • Test of security HTTP headers (for example, CSP, X-Frame-Options, HSTS)
  • Test policies (for example, Flash, Silverlight, robots)
  • Proof of no production data in the live environment, and vice versa
  • Check for confidential data in the client-side code (for example, API keys, credentials)

Secure transmission

  • Check SSL Version, Algorithms, Key length
  • Verify the validity of the digital certificate (duration, signature and CN)
  • Verify credentials only delivered through HTTPS
  • Check that the login form is delivered through HTTPS
  • Check session tokens only delivered through HTTPS
  • Verify if HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) is in use

For the authentication

  • Test for user enumeration
  • Authentication bypass test
  • Brute force protection test
  • Test password quality rules
  • Try to remind me of the functionality
  • Autocomplete test in forms / password entry
  • Test reset and / or password recovery
  • Test password change process
  • CAPTCHA test
  • Multi-factor authentication test
  • Proof of presence of session closing functionality
  • HTTP cache management test (for example, Pragma, Expires, maximum age)
  • Testing default logins
  • Authentication history test accessible to the user
  • Test notification outside the channel of account locks and successful password changes
  • Authentication test consisting of all applications with shared authentication scheme / SSO

For the session management

  • Set how the session is managed in the application (eg, Tokens in cookies, token in URL)
  • Check session tokens for cookie flags (httpOnly and secure)
  • Check the scope of the cookie of the session (route and domain)
  • Check the duration of the cookie session (expires and max-age)
  • Verify the termination of the session after a maximum service life
  • Check the end of the session after the relative wait time
  • Check the end of the session after the end of session
  • Test to see if users can have multiple simultaneous sessions
  • Test session cookies by randomness
  • Confirm that new session tokens are issued at login, change of function, and logout
  • Session management test consistent in all applications with shared session management
  • Test to disconcert the session
  • CSRF and clickjacking test

In the authorization

  • Transverse travel test
  • Test to bypass the authorization scheme
  • Test of vertical problems of access control (a.k.a. Privilege Escalation)
  • Test of horizontal access control problems (between two users at the same privilege level)
  • Proof of lack of authorization

In terms of Data validation, the information security professionals suggest:

  • Cross-site scripting test mirrored
  • Test for cross-stored site scripts
  • Test of DOM-based scripts.
  • Cross-site flicker test
  • HTML Injection Test
  • SQL Injection Test
  • LDAP Injection Test
  • Test for injection of ORM
  • XML Injection Test
  • Injection test XXE
  • SSI Injection Test
  • XPath Injection Test
  • Test for XQuery Injection
  • Test for IMAP / SMTP injection
  • Code Injection Test
  • Expression language injection test
  • Command Injection Test
  • Overflow test (stack, heap and integer)
  • Format string test
  • Test of incubated vulnerabilities
  • HTTP Splitting / Smuggling test
  • HTTP verb manipulation test
  • Open redirection test
  • Test for the inclusion of local files
  • Remote file inclusion test
  • Compare the validation rules on the client side and on the server side
  • Test for NoSQL injection
  • Pollution test by HTTP parameter
  • Self-binding test
  • Mass assignment test
  • NULL test / invalid session cookie

Denial of service

  • Anti-automation test
  • Test for account blocking
  • Test for the HTTP DoS protocol
  • SQL wildcard DoS test

Business logic

  • Proof of incorrect use of features
  • Test for lack of non-repudiation
  • Test of trust relationships
  • Data integrity test
  • Proof of segregation of tasks

For the cryptography

  • Check if the data that must be encrypted is not
  • Check the use of incorrect algorithms according to the context
  • Verify the use of weak algorithms
  • Verify the proper use of salting
  • Verify random functions

Risky functionality: uploading files

  • Prove that acceptable file types are included in the whitelist
  • Test that file size limits, load frequency, and total file count are defined and met
  • Test that the content of the file matches the type of file defined
  • Test that all file uploads have an in-place antivirus scan.
  • Test that insecure file names are disinfected
  • Proof that the uploaded files are not directly accessible from the web root
  • Proof that the uploaded files are not served in the same host / port name
  • Test that files and other media are integrated with authentication and authorization schemes

Risky functionality – Card payment

  • Test for known vulnerabilities and configuration problems in the web server and the web application
  • Default or guessable password test
  • Proof of no production data in the live environment, and vice versa
  • Injection vulnerability testing
  • Buffer overflow test
  • Unsafe cryptographic storage test
  • Proof of insufficient protection of the transport layer
  • Incorrect error handling test
  • Test all vulnerabilities with a CVSS score v2> 4.0
  • Test authentication and authorization issues
  • Test for CSRF

For HTML 5

  • Web messaging test
  • Test for SQL injection of web storage
  • Check the implementation of CORS
  • Check web application offline
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